Introduction To Cybersecurity

What is Cyber Security?

Some people say that Cybersecurity is a single word and some say that Cyber Security is a combination of two different words. Single word Cyber does not have any particular meaning. Cyberspace is the first word used long back ago before cybersecurity and cybersecurity word is used in 1989. Cyberspace refers to anything associated with the internet. Cybersecurity intends to protect all things accessible in cyberspace like Laptop, Desktop, mobile, printers, scanners, smart devices.

Common Terminologies

  • Hacking

Hacking means getting unauthorized access to anyone's information system. If some information stored on a common computer and it is not related to you and you're still accessing it then it's considered as hacking or you are in ATM que and someone is peeking when you're going to enter your pin that is also called as hacking.

  • Hackers

Hackers are clever programmers who know every feature of a network device. Some programmer crack into system with malicious intention is called as Crackers.

  • Vulnerability

Lets divide this word in two parts Vulnerable + Ability. Ability means a feature with good intent like a Bluetooth feature created for the ability of sharing photos, videos. Vulnerable means unsafe or at risk combining these two means vulnerability, a ability that's unsafe or at risk.

There is a list of all existing common vulnerabilities exposed till now.

  • Exploits

Make use of (a situation) in a way considered unfair or underhand like a software tool designed to take advantage of a flaw in a computer system, typically for malicious purposes such as installing malware.

  • Insider Threats

The threats caused by an ex-employees or dissatisfied employees from the organization seeking revenge. These are the most dangerous and commonly used threats for any organization.


Types Of Hackers

  1. Script Kiddie

Script kiddie are hackers who rely on software's, tools and scripts to achieve their goals. Script kiddie is the starting phase for every hacker. Those who stuck in that phase is script kiddie and those who expand their knowledge and learn about how those software and tools work are move on from that field.

2. White Hat Hackers

White Hat Hackers also called as ethical hackers as they hacks particular device with ethics and with prior permission. These are the good guys in cybersecurity field and they never take advantage of their knowledge and do some unethical thing.

3. Black hat Hackers

Black Hat Hackers are unethical hackers, they are the bad guys in cybersecurity field. They hack anything they want and use that data to post on dark-web or blackmail the particular victim.

4. Grey Hat Hackers

Grey Hat Hackers are Dangerous as we don't know what they will do. They hack the system without malicious intention and without the permission. They are security professional by day and black hat hackers by night. Grey Hat Hackers exploit a system and they use it for their own benefit and after their work done they report back to the system owner.

Types Of Exploits

  1. Remote Exploits

Remote Exploits function over networks, its intention is to steal data using malware, trojan or viruses.

  1. Local Exploits

The Hackers requires access to the system in order to locally exploit it.

  1. Zero-Day Exploits

These are the exploits that are discovered on the same day of the release of the application.

Phases Of Hacking

  • Foot Printing / Reconnaissance

In this phase we gather all the information available about the victim from free. like all the information related about our victim available on social media.

  • Scanning

After gathering all available information about the victim in this phase we gather all technical information related to victim. Like what network he uses, are there any available ports on the victim device. Like Port Scanning, Network Scanning, Vulnerability Scanning, Operating System Scanning.

  • Gaining Access

This the phase where all hacking happens. In this phase hacker use all tools and software to exploits the gathered information and vulnerabilities and gain access to victims network/device/account.

  • Maintaining Access

In this phase maintaining access is really necessary because if you can stay undetected for long time on victim device/network you can collect more information and data from him.

  • Clearing Tracks

This is last and main phase in hacking and its also important phase because if you're caught in your act then all the hard work flush away. In this phase hacker erase all event logs, history present on victim device.

Job Opportunities

  • Security Testing

Security Testing is one of the most profitable carrier option for Cyber Security.

Security Testing Categories

  1. Mobile Application Testing

  2. Web Application Testing

  3. Cloud Testing

  4. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Testing

  5. Network Infrastructure Training

  • Cyber Forensic

The main role of cyber forensic investigator is to gather information by investigating computer systems and data in order to present information for legal cases to determine how an unauthorized user gained access or hacked into a system.

  • Threat Intelligence

Threat Intelligence can be defined as evidence based knowledge or refined information about potential or current attacks that threats an organization. Cyber Threat Intelligence is based on the collection of intelligence using open source intelligence (OSINT), social media intelligence (SOCMINT) and human intelligence (HUMINT).

  • Bug Bounty

Also known as VRP (Vulnerability Rewards Program) is an initiative of crowdsourcing which provides individuals with rewards for reporting and discovering any bug or leak in the software being tested. India is ranked second in the number of bug hunters in the word.

Some of Bug Bounty Platforms are:

  1. Bugcrowd

  2. Hackerone

  3. Bounty Factory

  4. Synack

  • Security Researcher

Security researchers take apart malware to see what vulnerabilities the malicious software is exploiting and glean intelligence out of the malware – how it communicates and how it is structured. They use that information to track adversaries and groups by the attack methods they have deployed.